Working Methodology of Domain Name Server (DNS)

Computers serve two purposes; one is achieved while working off-line and other purpose can be accomplished by using the available on-line services. However, on-line usage requires the efficient functioning of Domain name Server (DNS), for enabling the user to surf various website.

When we buy a computer, we start using it for our various requirements. We may use the computer to program a certain project, write codes for some software or do multiple tasks with the help of soft ware features available on the computer, mostly by default. This all does not need us to be in touch with the outside world.


However, when we need to interact with other people via our own computer for doing small jobs like email sending etc, we need to have an address for our computer. This address is known as IP address and is usually a string of numbers like It is humanly not possible for us to remember this address all through. It is here that we need to have a Domain name, which is usually a few words that can be remembered easily. When we need to go to a particular web site called URL, we need not to remember its IP address, but the Domain name Server (DNS), does the mapping of this address.. This is how it works.

  • Codes for names and numbers

DNS does the mapping and reverse mapping of addresses. When it starts finding an IP address from a URL, it is called mapping and when the IP address is scanned to know the URL connected to this address, it is called reverse mapping. Here is how the directory services of DNS helps it to interact with other DNS servers in the internet to find the address of a particular web site or URL Hence, the DNS can be said to be a global network of servers. It is thus a distributed database and no organization is responsible for updating it.

There are soft wares for the writing DNS programs. The most popular is BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) In this software, DNS is hierarchical, tree-structured system. The top is known as the root of the system. Below this root, there are seven  sub domain roots like ”com”, “org”, “gov”, “mil”, “edu”, “Int”, “net”

  • DNS components

DNS has mainly two components; one is the “Name Server” and other is “Resolver”

Domain name Server (DNS), has the task of looking up the names. A particular name server can do this for a number of addresses. However, if it does not have the required information, then it will contact other name server. Nevertheless, every name server also knows how to contact the root server that in turn will know the location of every authoritative name server for all level domains.

We will be discussing different types of name servers in our forthcoming entries. Meanwhile, readers may look at other topics, to gain knowledge about varied subjects, apart from the issues involving internet working and Domain name Server (DNS)



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